Varicocele is a condition that is characterised by dilated and tortuous veins draining the blood from the testis (pampiniform plexus). It is more common on the left side.

The causes of are not fully understood and there are several theories why the condition develops.

The symptoms vary from being completely asymptomatic to causing ache, discomfort, pain, swelling.

The importance of varicocele detection and treatment lies in the fact that individuals with varicocele can have lower sperm counts and worse sperm parameters that can affect fertility.

Treatment of varicoceles can improve sperm parameters but does not always improve fertility rates.

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